We explain how staking works in Ethereum 2.0

Maciej Zieliński

09 Aug 2022
We explain how staking works in Ethereum 2.0

For a long time, there has been news about the Ethereum upgrade. It is likely that from mid-September 2022. PoW will transform into PoS.  The developer of the leading altcoin suggested last month that the merger could take place on September 19. Ethereum has seen significant growth (more than 60%) relative to other cryptocurrencies during the bull market. What will Ethereum 2.0 be? What are the differences between classic ETH and the merger? How do you stack on Ethereum 2.0? We write about it below! 

What is Ethereum 2.0?

Ethereum 2.0 is a new version of the Ethereum blockchain. It will use Proof - of - Stake to verify transactions. The Ethereum 2.0 staking engine itself will replace the proof-of-work model, in which cryptocurrency miners use powerful computers to perform complex mathematical functions called hashes. Currently, the mining process requires an ever-increasing amount of electricity to verify Ethereum transactions before they are written to the public blockchain. The Proof of Work and energy consumption on ETH annually can be compared to the carbon footprint of all of Switzerland or Finland. Ethereum 2.0 is expected to change the energy world and reduce the carbon footprint by 99.95 percent. Ethereum 2.0 features four elements: 

  • Efficiency - Ethereum will be 99.95% more energy efficient than ETH. It is estimated that proof of rate will no longer require a national authority to secure the network.
  • Partitioning - Ethereum will be divided into 18 "shards." Each will operate separately and simultaneously, improving the efficiency of the project. Each shard will contain its independent state, which means a unique set of account balances and smart contracts. Sharding is by far the most complex Ethereum scaling solution.
  • Staking - Ethereum will move to PoS so everyone can participate and help secure the network.
  • Security - in Proof-of-Stake, network disruption becomes more expensive. 

Proof Of Stake vs Proof Of Work 

Proof of Stake (PoS) is a mechanism for validating mining transactions. With PoS, users can mine and validate their own transactions based on their coin holdings. Therefore, each miner's amount of owned cryptocurrencies is related to the crypto mining capabilities.  

Proof of Work works based on how quickly miners mine crypto and solve equations. PoW is a system that focuses on network cybersecurity, a consensus mechanism that requires miners' efforts to counter malware and negative use of computing power. 

Ethereum 2.0

In what phases will Ethereum 2.0 be implemented? 

The Ethereum 2.0 project is being implemented in three phases: 

  • Phase 0- Beacon Chain - launched on December 1, 2020. This is where PoS is introduced into the Ethereum ecosystem. With this phase, the Ethereum network is coordinated and can serve as a consensus value. This acts as a precursor to the upcoming steps. 
  • Phase 1 - The Merge - the stage of merging the new consensus layer with the existing execution layer. At this point, there will be an end to mining on Ethereum. From this point on, the footprint will be reduced, and the implementation of new scalability elements for Ethereum - such as sharding - will begin. It is likely to go into effect around September 19, 2022. 
  • Phase 2- Sharding - there will be database partitioning, which will distribute the network load. In this phase, everyone will be able to run a node independently on weaker hardware (than before), Ethereum will be able to be staked on any hardware - a laptop or phone, and network participation will increase. 
Ethereum 2.0

What is staking on Ethereum 2.0? 

Many people are wondering what staking will look like on Ethereum 2.0. In the Beacon Chain phase, 32 ETH can be subject to community staking on validation nodes. Remember that 32 ETH2 staking is used to verify transactions and status on the network. In addition, it serves the function of guaranteeing that the approval node is operating correctly and honestly. As part of this, stakers receive Ethereum. In practice, validators will generate ETH as passive income and receive ETH dividends at specific intervals. According to estimates, staking in Ethereum 2.0 can create an ROI of 14% per year. According to analysts, the demand for ETH will increase after the proof-of-stake implementation due to the additional demand for ETH by proof-of-stake and validation nodes. In contrast, the demand for GPUs will decrease as mining on Ethereum ends.

How does staking work?

Unlike PoW, PoS-based blockchains combine 32 blocks of transactions in each round of validation, which takes an average of 6.4 minutes. "Epochs" is the name given to these groups of blocks. When a blockchain adds two additional Epochs one after the other, it is considered irreversible and finalized. Beacon Chain divides the stakers into 128 "committees" and randomly assigns them to specific block shards. Each committee is designated a "slot" and has a certain amount of time to propose a new block and then approve internal transactions. Each epoch has 32 slots and requires 32 sets of committees to complete the validation run.  Once a committee is formed for a block, a randomly selected member is given the exclusive right to propose new blocks of transactions. The remaining 127 members vote on the proposals and approve the transactions. Beacon Chain collects information about the state of shards. It distributes it to neighboring fragments to keep the network synchronized. Validators will be managed by Beacon Chain, which handles everything from recording their contributions to rewards and penalties. In addition, the second phase, which involves sharding, will see the process of dividing the Ethereum network into chunks called "shards." Each shard will have a state that contains a separate set of account balances and smart contracts. New blocks are added to the blockchain, and a "cross-link" is created to verify them after approval by the majority of the committee. Only after this approval does stakers selected to propose new blocks receive rewards.

How much can be earned by staking Ethereum 2.0?

To calculate the rewards in Ethereum 2.0, you need to use the annual interest rate and the function of the inverse of the square root. In practice, this means that the lower the total rate of ETH 2.0, the lower the profit. The reward models for proposers and validators are different. The block proposer will receive ⅛ of the base reward, and the validator will receive the remainder (7/8). To receive the exclusive reward, the validator must apply as soon as possible. For each gap (including block validation) completed without command, the payout is reduced. The bonus is reduced by 7/16 if two sites are seized before being submitted for validation, then to 7/32 if three sites pass, and so on. The speed of Ethereum 2.0 issuance depends mainly on the base reward. The lower the base reward, the higher the number of validators connected to Ethereum 2.0. 

How to start?

In order to start staking on the new Ethereum network, there must be the creation of a staking node between Ethereum 1.0 and Ethereum 2.0. Then it would help if you had computer hardware. The minimum requirements are not great. It is enough for users to have enough memory to download old and new Ethereum blockchains. Ethereum 1.0 already has about 900 TB of data and is growing at a rate of about 1 GB per day. In addition, validators will be required to maintain nodes connected to the blockchain. In practice, you need to have a good Internet connection to start staking. Once you install the validator's software on your hardware, you must send ETH to the Ethereum staking contract address. To do this, you need to generate two keys: 

  • one for signing and validating transaction blocks,
  • the other for cash withdrawals. 

Note that you will not be able to create keys for withdrawals until Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 merge in 2022. Before you send funds to the protocol address for staking, you must first go through launchpad 2.0. and follow the procedures. Going through the process and making the payment is supposed to block potential fraudsters who want to undermine the authenticity of the Ethereum 2.0 project. 

Is it worth betting on Ethereum 2.0?

Do many people wonder if Ethereum 2.0 is better than ETH? The answer to this question is that you need to grow and be open to new technologies. An annual interest rate of 6 to 15% is more attractive than any bank deposit. With a minimum requirement of 32 ETH, you can expect to earn between 2 and 5 ETH in practice at current prices. The downside is that you are freezing your capital. Another problem is that no one knows the value of ETH 2.0. The project could turn out to be a bigger success as well as a sizable failure. 

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The Economy of Aleph Zero (AZERO)


22 Feb 2024
The Economy of Aleph Zero (AZERO)

The evolution of blockchain technology has brought forward numerous platforms aiming to solve various challenges in the digital world. Among these innovations, Aleph Zero stands out with its unique approach to creating an economically viable ecosystem through thoughtful tokenomics and incentives. This article delves into the economy of Aleph Zero, focusing on its native token, AZERO, to understand how it sustains growth, incentivizes participation, and ensures long-term viability.

MUST READ: "What is Aleph Zero"

Understanding AZERO Tokenomics

Key Metrics and Distribution

  • Ticker: AZERO
  • Type: Utility
  • Circulating Supply: 257,990,631
  • Total Supply: 354,678,137
  • % Staked: 71%
  • # of Wallets: 207,370
  • Inflation: 30,000,000 AZERO per year
  • Market Cap: $410,598,781

Allocation and Use Cases

  • Aleph Zero Foundation. 23% of the tokens are allocated for research, development, marketing, operations, ecosystem incentives, and other expenses.
  • Team Allocation. 10% of the tokens, with 80% locked for one year and vested over four years.
  • Funding Rounds. Details on the pre-seed, seed, Early Community round, public presale, and public sale distributions.
  • AZERO Utility. The AZERO coin powers the Aleph Zero ecosystem by being used for validator node staking, DEX swap fees, collateral for wrapped assets in Liminal, fees for asset-wrapping and bridging on Liminal, network fees, and governance voting processes.

The Role of Inflation in Aleph Zero's Ecosystem

Inflation is often viewed negatively in traditional economic contexts, associated with diminishing purchasing power and economic instability. However, in the realm of blockchain ecosystems like Aleph Zero, inflation serves as a pivotal mechanism for fostering sustainable growth, incentivizing network participation, and ensuring the long-term viability of the platform. This article explores the nuanced role of inflation within Aleph Zero's ecosystem, detailing its introduction, benefits, and governance.

Introduction of Inflation

Aleph Zero has introduced a systematic annual increase of 30 million AZERO tokens to its circulating supply, a decision rooted in the desire to sustain and nurture ecosystem growth. This inflationary mechanism is not merely a tool for increasing token supply but a strategic approach to enhancing the network's security, scalability, and development. By carefully calibrating the rate of inflation, Aleph Zero aims to balance the need for rewarding network participants with the imperative of maintaining the token's value over time.

Benefits of Inflation

The introduction of inflation within Aleph Zero's ecosystem serves multiple critical functions, each contributing to the platform's overarching goals:

  • Incentivizing Validators and Nominators. Validators and nominators play a crucial role in securing the Aleph Zero network through the proof-of-stake consensus mechanism. Inflation provides these participants with financial rewards for their efforts, encouraging continued engagement and investment in the network's health and security.
  • Funding Ecosystem Treasury. A portion of the newly minted AZERO tokens is allocated to the ecosystem treasury each year. These funds are instrumental in supporting ongoing development projects, marketing initiatives, operational expenses, and other activities that contribute to the ecosystem's growth and sustainability.
  • Supporting Long-Term Holding. By distributing inflation rewards primarily to those who stake their tokens, Aleph Zero encourages long-term holding over speculative trading. This strategy aims to reduce market volatility and foster a stable economic environment conducive to gradual growth.

Inflation Mechanism and Governance

Validators and Nominators

At the heart of Aleph Zero's security and efficiency are its validators and nominators, who ensure the integrity of transactions and the network at large. Inflation directly supports these roles by compensating participants for their staked tokens and the risks associated with securing the network. This compensation not only rewards current participants but also attracts new validators and nominators, enhancing the network's decentralization and resilience.

Ecosystem Treasury

The ecosystem treasury represents a vital component of Aleph Zero's inflation strategy, receiving a dedicated portion of the annual inflation to fund various initiatives. These initiatives range from research and development to community engagement programs, all aimed at bolstering the ecosystem's health and competitiveness. The treasury's role is pivotal in allocating resources efficiently to areas that promise the most significant impact on Aleph Zero's growth and user adoption.

Decentralized Governance

A key aspect of Aleph Zero's inflationary policy is its commitment to decentralized governance. The platform envisions a future where token holders can vote on critical decisions, including adjustments to the inflation rate. This participatory approach ensures that the inflation mechanism remains responsive to the ecosystem's evolving needs, balancing the interests of various stakeholders to support the platform's long-term success.

MUST READ: "Aleph Zero vs Solana"

Regulatory Compliance and Market Presence

  • FINMA No-Action Letter: Aleph Zero’s compliance with Swiss law and the implications for its operation and token issuance.
  • Market and Wallets: Insights into Aleph Zero’s market presence, including exchanges and wallet statistics.

Key Takeaways


The economy of Aleph Zero showcases a thoughtful approach to creating a sustainable and growing blockchain ecosystem. Through strategic token allocation Aleph Zero is poised to contribute significantly to the blockchain landscape. As the platform evolves, its economic strategies will likely serve as a benchmark for future blockchain projects.

If you are interested in utilizing Aleph Zero, Solana or other blockchain-based solutions for your project, please reach out to contact@nextrope.com


How is the AZERO token distribution structured?

  • The distribution is designed to support the ecosystem's growth, with allocations for stakeholders and strategic initiatives.

What role does inflation play in the Aleph Zero ecosystem?

  • Inflation is used strategically to incentivize network participation and ensure sustainability.

What is the utility of AZERO tokens within the Aleph Zero ecosystem?

  • AZERO tokens power the Aleph Zero ecosystem (validator node staking, DEX swap fees, collateral for wrapped assets in Liminal, fees for asset-wrapping and bridging on Liminal, network fees, and governance voting processes).

How does Aleph Zero handle inflation and its impact on the ecosystem?

  • Aleph Zero introduces a systematic annual increase of 30 million AZERO tokens to encourage ecosystem growth, incentivize participation, fund the ecosystem treasury, and support long-term holding by distributing inflation rewards mainly to stakers, aiming to balance growth with token value maintenance.

Aleph Zero vs Solana: A Comparative Analysis


22 Feb 2024
Aleph Zero vs Solana: A Comparative Analysis

Blockchain ensures unparalleled security, transparency, and efficiency across various sectors. Within this innovative landscape, Aleph Zero and Solana have carved their niches, emerging as leading blockchain platforms. This article delves into a comparative analysis 'Aleph Zero vs Solana', aiming to illuminate their distinct features, technological advancements, and potential applications.

Understanding the Basics

Aleph Zero


  • Brief History and Development: Originating from a vision to enhance privacy and scalability in blockchain, Aleph Zero quickly ascended as a notable contender. Its development team focused on creating a platform that merges traditional blockchain benefits with advanced privacy features.
  • Core Technology and Consensus Mechanism: At its core, Aleph Zero utilizes a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) combined with a unique consensus algorithm. This innovative approach not only ensures transactions are processed swiftly but also maintains high security and privacy standards.



  • Brief History and Development: Solana was born from the ambition to solve the blockchain trilemma: achieving scalability, security, and decentralization without compromise. Its rapid growth is attributed to its ability to cater to high-demand applications, from decentralized finance (DeFi) to non-fungible tokens (NFTs).
  • Core Technology and Consensus Mechanism: Solana introduces the Proof of History (PoH) consensus mechanism, a groundbreaking innovation that allows for timestamping transactions in a sequential manner. This, combined with its underlying blockchain structure, enables Solana to process transactions at lightning speeds, setting new standards for efficiency in the blockchain domain.

The journeys of Aleph Zero and Solana, though distinct, converge on a shared goal: to redefine the capabilities of blockchain technology. Through their innovative approaches to consensus mechanisms and core technologies, both platforms offer unique solutions to the challenges facing traditional and digital markets today. Their contributions to the blockchain landscape not only highlight their individual strengths but also underscore the diverse potential of blockchain technology as a whole.

MUST READ: "What is Aleph Zero - Key Features"

Key Features Comparison - Aleph Zero vs Solana


  • Aleph Zero: Tackles scalability through its DAG-based consensus, allowing parallel transactions that increase scalability.
  • Solana: Achieves high scalability with its PoH consensus, efficiently handling thousands of transactions per second (TPS).

Transaction Speed and Throughput

  • Aleph Zero: Boasts fast transaction speeds due to its lightweight consensus mechanism, aiming for efficiency without sacrificing security.
  • Solana: Known for its exceptional speed, Solana processes up to 65,000 TPS, setting a benchmark in blockchain throughput.


  • Aleph Zero: Offers low transaction fees, making it attractive for both high-volume transactions and micro-transactions.
  • Solana: Despite its high throughput, Solana maintains competitively low fees, further enhancing its appeal for developers and users alike.

Smart Contracts and DApp Development

  • Aleph Zero: Supports smart contracts and DApp development, focusing on privacy and scalability within its ecosystem.
  • Solana: Provides robust support for DApps and smart contracts, powered by its high-speed blockchain, ideal for complex applications.
Aleph Zero vs Solana

Use Cases - Aleph Zero vs Solana

Aleph Zero

  • Best Suited For: Privacy-focused applications, financial services requiring high security, and scalable enterprise solutions.


  • Shines In: High-frequency trading platforms, decentralized finance (DeFi) applications, and NFT marketplaces demanding fast transactions.

Performance Analysis

Network Speed and Efficiency

  • Aleph Zero: Demonstrates efficiency with its innovative consensus, ensuring quick and secure transactions.
  • Solana: Outpaces many with its network speed, attributed to the PoH mechanism, ensuring both rapid and consistent transaction processing.

Scalability Solutions

  • Aleph Zero: Continuously explores advancements in DAG technology to enhance its scalability solutions.
  • Solana: Plans to further optimize its infrastructure, ensuring it remains scalable amidst growing demand.

Security Aspects

Consensus Mechanisms

  • Aleph Zero: Its unique consensus mechanism prioritizes security, aiming to prevent attacks while maintaining speed.
  • Solana: Solana's PoH consensus is designed with security in mind, preventing double-spending and ensuring transaction integrity.

Known Vulnerabilities and Responses

  • Aleph Zero: Responds to vulnerabilities with timely updates, emphasizing its commitment to security and privacy.
  • Solana: Has faced challenges, including network congestions and DDoS attacks, but has responded with enhancements to its network resilience.

Through this comparative analysis, it becomes evident that Aleph Zero and Solana each bring distinctive strengths to the blockchain arena. Their approaches to scalability, transaction speed, fees, and smart contract capabilities cater to different needs within the blockchain ecosystem. Moreover, their targeted use cases and ongoing efforts to enhance performance and security underscore the dynamic and evolving nature of blockchain technology.


In conclusion, the comparative analysis between Aleph Zero vs Solana reveals two highly innovative and efficient blockchain platforms, each with its unique strengths. Aleph Zero focuses on privacy and scalability, making it ideal for applications requiring robust security measures. Solana, on the other hand, excels in transaction speed and throughput, positioning it as a top choice for high-frequency trading and DeFi applications.

If you are interested in utilizing Aleph Zero, Solana or other blockchain-based solutions for your project, please reach out to contact@nextrope.com


What are the main differences between Aleph Zero and Solana's consensus mechanisms?

  • Aleph Zero uses a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) combined with a unique consensus algorithm for high security and privacy, while Solana employs Proof of History (PoH) for high-speed transaction processing.

How do Aleph Zero and Solana compare in terms of transaction speed and scalability?

  • Aleph Zero focuses on scalability with its DAG-based consensus allowing parallel transactions, while Solana is known for its exceptional speed, processing up to 65,000 transactions per second.

What are the targeted use cases for Aleph Zero and Solana?

  • Aleph Zero is best suited for privacy-focused applications and scalable enterprise solutions, whereas Solana excels in high-frequency trading platforms, decentralized finance (DeFi) applications, and NFT marketplaces.

How does the developer community size and support compare between Aleph Zero and Solana?

  • Readers might be curious about the size of the developer community, availability of development tools, and the level of support provided to developers in both ecosystems.

What are the environmental impacts of Aleph Zero vs. Solana?

  • Given increasing concerns about sustainability, potential users may question the energy consumption and environmental footprint of both blockchain platforms.