Decentralization of personal data with Soulbound tokens (SBT)

Maciej Zieliński

29 May 2022
Decentralization of personal data with Soulbound tokens (SBT)

NFT and tokens are one of the most popular forms of indicating ownership rights or commercial products. For several years, this area of blockchain has been constantly evolving and has been used in art, gaming and finance. What can the new tokens proposed by one of the biggest crypto visionaries, Vitalik Buterin, bring to the market? What are Soulbound tokens? We're writing about it below!

Vitalik Buterin and SBT

The creator of Ethereum, Vitalik Buterin, pointed out some time ago that it would be a good idea to implement a new kind of tokens that will help to test the actions, achievements, antipathies and other factors among potential crypto users. Due to the fact that, according to Vitalik, they will be a sort of "look into the soul", the tokens were called Soulbound. These tokens are non-transferable NFT and are stored in special crypto portfolios called “Souls”. Vitalik points out that they can be used in many ways – from educational certification to credit assessment.

How does SBT work?

SBT will be a kind of medium for our information, which will facilitate the everyday lives of many people thanks to full automation and decentralization. For example, our SBT will gather information regarding CV, education, interests and other factors. Thus, if a university is interested in our potential application, the SBT will analyze all the information indicating whether we are a good candidate or not. It also works the other way around – with all the information regarding a particular University, the SBT will be able to assess if it meets our requirements. The decentralization of information will be outside the reach of all bureaucracy, major institutions and companies. Moreover, you do not need to create a database because it will be stored in a separate location – you will get an access key.

What to do if you lose the key to your SBT?

The lack of access to your wallet is one of the worst problems you can imagine in the cryptocurrency industry. What if you lose the keys to the SBT? Many people are now probably asking themselves whether all your information, certificates, university diplomas, etc., will disappear if the keys are lost. There will probably be a solution to this situation. If you lose your keys, you will be able to recover your wallet if you get the permission of the SBT community.

Spam – as a problem in SBT

Can other users smuggle content into your token? This question also appears among NFT users. The answer to it is simple: Vitalik proposed the possibility of hiding SBT keys from the public.

Is personal information stored using SBT safe?

Leaving aside the issue of spam, private key protection, and disclosure of critical information regarding our person - attaching all this to a public blockchain sounds intriguing! Unfortunately, if there's no way to hide these NFTs from other people, they could turn out to be dangerous. Someone with access to an entity's data will have the ability to influence it in many ways. Some point out that SBT is a bit like China's social credit system in China, which is used in a very negative way. It involves rating the public on a number of levels, from party affiliation to education to reporting on other citizens. For each action, the system accrues points. Those who have fewer points have poorer access to education, cannot buy better equipment, and their social situation constantly weakens. Without a doubt, this is simply a categorization of citizens. Nevertheless, SBT is not intended to categorize people, but to store data outside of central authorities and automate any bureaucratic process. 

SBT Safe

Can an SBT token be transferred to another person?  

Since we cannot trade our token or transfer it to other people, what can be done with it? Here are some examples of a potential SBT solution: 

  • DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization) aims to create an environmental community. Attendees of environmental conferences and graduates of environmental programs can obtain SBT by airdrop from the DAO. 
  • Security of documentation - if universities will issue diplomas and certificates in the form of SBT, by the very definition - they cannot sell their documents or forge them thanks to blockchain technology. 
  • Experience verification - if, for example, a given IT company wants to hire programmers specializing in blockchain technology, it will check their experience, projects, and education automatically using SBT. After the initial data analysis, potential candidates can be invited for an interview. 

SBT tokens show a person's university affiliation, membership in academic programs, and qualifications. Additionally, this token will be able to represent the unique and individual characteristics of the subject. It is safe to say that this kind of token will help in building reputation and protecting identity. Vitalik himself indicates that we are moving towards a society that will be fully decentralized and independent of state bodies and entities. 

How to transfer SBT from one wallet to another?

What if a user wants to move all his assets (SBT) from one wallet to another? There are several solutions to this situation: 

  • Store the item at an address that is an abbreviation of the index, the recipient's address, and a secret belonging to the recipient. You can reveal your secret to the interface, which will then scan all possible items belonging to you, but no one without your secret will be able to see which items belong to you.
  • Publish a hash of multiple objects and give each recipient its Merkle branch.
  • If a smart contract needs to verify that you have an item, you can provide ZK-SNARK.

Transfers can take place over the network. The technique that is least complicated should be using ZK-SNARK. In this case, a transaction will be made that invokes a factory contract to make the old item invalid and the new item valid. Everything is done using ZK-SNARK, which makes the operation valid. According to Buterin - transferability mainly shows the money orientation of Web 3.0 and how it can hurt the long-term stability of the next generation. Vitalik also shows the advantage of SBT over NFT. According to him, you can buy and sell NFTs to support artists, charities, etc, but this kind of technology cannot be used for the Soulbound Tokens concept as it could create a wide scope for infringement. 

When will SBTs be created? 

Vitalik, claims that Soulbound Tokens (SBTs) will be available as early as 2022, and by the end of 2024, they will already be popular worldwide. Hopefully, this kind of new technology will greatly improve the transfer of information and protect it with a decentralized structure! 

Are SBTs the future of NFT? 

It is likely that SBTs can be used by institutions native to web3 - DAO. It is assumed that Stanford University will recognize degrees held in NFT in about 5 years. It may be that the university's blockchain program itself will offer SBTs and other solutions from NFT to graduates of its university. Let's look at the number of clerks, staff, faculty, and bureaucracy it takes to process a simple resume or graduate school document. Imagine all these solutions will be redundant with a single token that fully automates the entire hiring process. Without a doubt, SBTs are the future of NFT. 

Benefits of implementing SBTs

The potential benefits of decentralizing personal data could be:

  • reducing government service costs, 
  • improving the flow of capital within a company by automating the transfer of documents,
  • improving employee and student recruitment, 
  • increased security of workflows in the private and public sectors, 
  • a more practical system for a single person - all documents in one place - no paper accumulation. 


SBTs are tokens that can make all bureaucracy as well as documentation fully automated and digitized. Thanks to blockchain technology and the innovative design of the SBT token, many states and businesses will have the opportunity to reduce costs. In particular, such a solution will be helpful when recruiting employees, and students, transferring information between hospitals, or insurance. The possibilities of decentralizing information are endless!  What do you think about SBT? Let us know in the comments! 

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Applying Game Theory in Token Design

Kajetan Olas

16 Apr 2024
Applying Game Theory in Token Design

Blockchain technology allows for aligning incentives among network participants by rewarding desired behaviors with tokens.
But there is more to it than simply fostering cooperation. Game theory allows for designing incentive-machines that can't be turned-off and resemble artificial life.

Emergent Optimization

Game theory provides a robust framework for analyzing strategic interactions with mathematical models, which is particularly useful in blockchain environments where multiple stakeholders interact within a set of predefined rules. By applying this framework to token systems, developers can design systems that influence the emergent behaviors of network participants. This ensures the stability and effectiveness of the ecosystem.

Bonding Curves

Bonding curves are tool used in token design to manage the relationship between price and token supply predictably. Essentially, a bonding curve is a mathematical curve that defines the price of a token based on its supply. The more tokens that are bought, the higher the price climbs, and vice versa. This model incentivizes early adoption and can help stabilize a token’s economy over time.

For example, a bonding curve could be designed to slow down price increases after certain milestones are reached, thus preventing speculative bubbles and encouraging steadier, more organic growth.

The Case of Bitcoin

Bitcoin’s design incorporates game theory, most notably through its consensus mechanism of proof-of-work (PoW). Its reward function optimizes for security (hashrate) by optimizing for maximum electricity usage. Therefore, optimizing for its legitimate goal of being secure also inadvertently optimizes for corrupting natural environment. Another emergent outcome of PoW is the creation of mining pools, that increase centralization.

The Paperclip Maximizer and the dangers of blockchain economy

What’s the connection between AI from the story and decentralized economies? Blockchain-based incentive systems also can’t be turned off. This means that if we design an incentive system that optimizes towards a wrong objective, we might be unable to change it. Bitcoin critics argue that the PoW consensus mechanism optimizes toward destroying planet Earth.

Layer 2 Solutions

Layer 2 solutions are built on the understanding that the security provided by this core kernel of certainty can be used as an anchor. This anchor then supports additional economic mechanisms that operate off the blockchain, extending the utility of public blockchains like Ethereum. These mechanisms include state channels, sidechains, or plasma, each offering a way to conduct transactions off-chain while still being able to refer back to the anchored security of the main chain if necessary.

Conceptual Example of State Channels

State channels allow participants to perform numerous transactions off-chain, with the blockchain serving as a backstop in case of disputes or malfeasance.

Consider two players, Alice and Bob, who want to play a game of tic-tac-toe with stakes in Ethereum. The naive approach would be to interact directly with a smart contract for every move, which would be slow and costly. Instead, they can use a state channel for their game.

  1. Opening the Channel: They start by deploying a "Judge" smart contract on Ethereum, which holds the 1 ETH wager. The contract knows the rules of the game and the identities of the players.
  2. Playing the Game: Alice and Bob play the game off-chain by signing each move as transactions, which are exchanged directly between them but not broadcast to the blockchain. Each transaction includes a nonce to ensure moves are kept in order.
  3. Closing the Channel: When the game ends, the final state (i.e., the sequence of moves) is sent to the Judge contract, which pays out the wager to the winner after confirming both parties agree on the outcome.

A threat stronger than the execution

If Bob tries to cheat by submitting an old state where he was winning, Alice can challenge this during a dispute period by submitting a newer signed state. The Judge contract can verify the authenticity and order of these states due to the nonces, ensuring the integrity of the game. Thus, the mere threat of execution (submitting the state to the blockchain and having the fraud exposed) secures the off-chain interactions.

Game Theory in Practice

Understanding the application of game theory within blockchain and token ecosystems requires a structured approach to analyzing how stakeholders interact, defining possible actions they can take, and understanding the causal relationships within the system. This structured analysis helps in creating effective strategies that ensure the system operates as intended.

Stakeholder Analysis

Identifying Stakeholders

The first step in applying game theory effectively is identifying all relevant stakeholders within the ecosystem. This includes direct participants such as users, miners, and developers but also external entities like regulators, potential attackers, and partner organizations. Understanding who the stakeholders are and what their interests and capabilities are is crucial for predicting how they might interact within the system.

Stakeholders in blockchain development for systems engineering

Assessing Incentives and Capabilities

Each stakeholder has different motivations and resources at their disposal. For instance, miners are motivated by block rewards and transaction fees, while users seek fast, secure, and cheap transactions. Clearly defining these incentives helps in predicting how changes to the system’s rules and parameters might influence their behaviors.

Defining Action Space

Possible Actions

The action space encompasses all possible decisions or strategies stakeholders can employ in response to the ecosystem's dynamics. For example, a miner might choose to increase computational power, a user might decide to hold or sell tokens, and a developer might propose changes to the protocol.

Artonomus, Github

Constraints and Opportunities

Understanding the constraints (such as economic costs, technological limitations, and regulatory frameworks) and opportunities (such as new technological advancements or changes in market demand) within which these actions take place is vital. This helps in modeling potential strategies stakeholders might adopt.

Artonomus, Github

Causal Relationships Diagram

Mapping Interactions

Creating a diagram that represents the causal relationships between different actions and outcomes within the ecosystem can illuminate how complex interactions unfold. This diagram helps in identifying which variables influence others and how they do so, making it easier to predict the outcomes of certain actions.

Artonomus, Github

Analyzing Impact

By examining the causal relationships, developers and system designers can identify critical leverage points where small changes could have significant impacts. This analysis is crucial for enhancing system stability and ensuring its efficiency.

Feedback Loops

Understanding feedback loops within a blockchain ecosystem is critical as they can significantly amplify or mitigate the effects of changes within the system. These loops can reinforce or counteract trends, leading to rapid growth or decline.

Reinforcing Loops

Reinforcing loops are feedback mechanisms that amplify the effects of a trend or action. For example, increased adoption of a blockchain platform can lead to more developers creating applications on it, which in turn leads to further adoption. This positive feedback loop can drive rapid growth and success.

Death Spiral

Conversely, a death spiral is a type of reinforcing loop that leads to negative outcomes. An example might be the increasing cost of transaction fees leading to decreased usage of the blockchain, which reduces the incentive for miners to secure the network, further decreasing system performance and user adoption. Identifying potential death spirals early is crucial for maintaining the ecosystem's health.

The Death Spiral: How Terra's Algorithmic Stablecoin Came Crashing Down
the-death-spiral-how-terras-algorithmic-stablecoin-came-crashing-down/, Forbes


The fundamental advantage of token-based systems is being able to reward desired behavior. To capitalize on that possibility, token engineers put careful attention into optimization and designing incentives for long-term growth.


  1. What does game theory contribute to blockchain token design?
    • Game theory optimizes blockchain ecosystems by structuring incentives that reward desired behavior.
  2. How do bonding curves apply game theory to improve token economics?
    • Bonding curves set token pricing that adjusts with supply changes, strategically incentivizing early purchases and penalizing speculation.
  3. What benefits do Layer 2 solutions provide in the context of game theory?
    • Layer 2 solutions leverage game theory, by creating systems where the threat of reporting fraudulent behavior ensures honest participation.

Token Engineering Process

Kajetan Olas

13 Apr 2024
Token Engineering Process

Token Engineering is an emerging field that addresses the systematic design and engineering of blockchain-based tokens. It applies rigorous mathematical methods from the Complex Systems Engineering discipline to tokenomics design.

In this article, we will walk through the Token Engineering Process and break it down into three key stages. Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase.

Discovery Phase of Token Engineering Process

The first stage of the token engineering process is the Discovery Phase. It focuses on constructing high-level business plans, defining objectives, and identifying problems to be solved. That phase is also the time when token engineers first define key stakeholders in the project.

Defining the Problem

This may seem counterintuitive. Why would we start with the problem when designing tokenomics? Shouldn’t we start with more down-to-earth matters like token supply? The answer is No. Tokens are a medium for creating and exchanging value within a project’s ecosystem. Since crypto projects draw their value from solving problems that can’t be solved through TradFi mechanisms, their tokenomics should reflect that. 

The industry standard, developed by McKinsey & Co. and adapted to token engineering purposes by Outlier Ventures, is structuring the problem through a logic tree, following MECE.
MECE stands for Mutually Exclusive, Collectively Exhaustive. Mutually Exclusive means that problems in the tree should not overlap. Collectively Exhaustive means that the tree should cover all issues.

In practice, the “Problem” should be replaced by a whole problem statement worksheet. The same will hold for some of the boxes.
A commonly used tool for designing these kinds of diagrams is the Miro whiteboard.

Identifying Stakeholders and Value Flows in Token Engineering

This part is about identifying all relevant actors in the ecosystem and how value flows between them. To illustrate what we mean let’s consider an example of NFT marketplace. In its case, relevant actors might be sellers, buyers, NFT creators, and a marketplace owner. Possible value flow when conducting a transaction might be: buyer gets rid of his tokens, seller gets some of them, marketplace owner gets some of them as fees, and NFT creators get some of them as royalties.

Incentive Mechanisms Canvas

The last part of what we consider to be in the Discovery Phase is filling the Incentive Mechanisms Canvas. After successfully identifying value flows in the previous stage, token engineers search for frictions to desired behaviors and point out the undesired behaviors. For example, friction to activity on an NFT marketplace might be respecting royalty fees by marketplace owners since it reduces value flowing to the seller.


Design Phase of Token Engineering Process

The second stage of the Token Engineering Process is the Design Phase in which you make use of high-level descriptions from the previous step to come up with a specific design of the project. This will include everything that can be usually found in crypto whitepapers (e.g. governance mechanisms, incentive mechanisms, token supply, etc). After finishing the design, token engineers should represent the whole value flow and transactional logic on detailed visual diagrams. These diagrams will be a basis for creating mathematical models in the Deployment Phase. 

Token Engineering Artonomous Design Diagram
Artonomous design diagram, source: Artonomous GitHub

Objective Function

Every crypto project has some objective. The objective can consist of many goals, such as decentralization or token price. The objective function is a mathematical function assigning weights to different factors that influence the main objective in the order of their importance. This function will be a reference for machine learning algorithms in the next steps. They will try to find quantitative parameters (e.g. network fees) that maximize the output of this function.
Modified Metcalfe’s Law can serve as an inspiration during that step. It’s a framework for valuing crypto projects, but we believe that after adjustments it can also be used in this context.

Deployment Phase of Token Engineering Process

The Deployment Phase is final, but also the most demanding step in the process. It involves the implementation of machine learning algorithms that test our assumptions and optimize quantitative parameters. Token Engineering draws from Nassim Taleb’s concept of Antifragility and extensively uses feedback loops to make a system that gains from arising shocks.

Agent-based Modelling 

In agent-based modeling, we describe a set of behaviors and goals displayed by each agent participating in the system (this is why previous steps focused so much on describing stakeholders). Each agent is controlled by an autonomous AI and continuously optimizes his strategy. He learns from his experience and can mimic the behavior of other agents if he finds it effective (Reinforced Learning). This approach allows for mimicking real users, who adapt their strategies with time. An example adaptive agent would be a cryptocurrency trader, who changes his trading strategy in response to experiencing a loss of money.

Monte Carlo Simulations

Token Engineers use the Monte Carlo method to simulate the consequences of various possible interactions while taking into account the probability of their occurrence. By running a large number of simulations it’s possible to stress-test the project in multiple scenarios and identify emergent risks.

Testnet Deployment

If possible, it's highly beneficial for projects to extend the testing phase even further by letting real users use the network. Idea is the same as in agent-based testing - continuous optimization based on provided metrics. Furthermore, in case the project considers airdropping its tokens, giving them to early users is a great strategy. Even though part of the activity will be disingenuine and airdrop-oriented, such strategy still works better than most.

Time Duration

Token engineering process may take from as little as 2 weeks to as much as 5 months. It depends on the project category (Layer 1 protocol will require more time, than a simple DApp), and security requirements. For example, a bank issuing its digital token will have a very low risk tolerance.

Required Skills for Token Engineering

Token engineering is a multidisciplinary field and requires a great amount of specialized knowledge. Key knowledge areas are:

  • Systems Engineering
  • Machine Learning
  • Market Research
  • Capital Markets
  • Current trends in Web3
  • Blockchain Engineering
  • Statistics


The token engineering process consists of 3 steps: Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase. It’s utilized mostly by established blockchain projects, and financial institutions like the International Monetary Fund. Even though it’s a very resource-consuming process, we believe it’s worth it. Projects that went through scrupulous design and testing before launch are much more likely to receive VC funding and be in the 10% of crypto projects that survive the bear market. Going through that process also has a symbolic meaning - it shows that the project is long-term oriented.

If you're looking to create a robust tokenomics model and go through institutional-grade testing please reach out to Our team is ready to help you with the token engineering process and ensure your project’s resilience in the long term.


What does token engineering process look like?

  • Token engineering process is conducted in a 3-step methodical fashion. This includes Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase. Each of these stages should be tailored to the specific needs of a project.

Is token engineering meant only for big projects?

  • We recommend that even small projects go through a simplified design and optimization process. This increases community's trust and makes sure that the tokenomics doesn't have any obvious flaws.

How long does the token engineering process take?

  • It depends on the project and may range from 2 weeks to 5 months.