Top 5 Account Abstraction Wallets


08 Dec 2023
Top 5 Account Abstraction Wallets

Blockchain technology has continuously evolved, introducing new paradigms that enhance user experience and security. Among these innovations, Account Abstraction Wallets have gained prominence for their unique approach to managing blockchain interactions. These wallets blur the traditional lines between contract and Externally Owned Accounts (EOAs), offering a unified and simplified interface. This approach not only streamlines transactions but also opens up new possibilities for smart contract integration, enhancing both functionality and security.

In this article, we will delve into the top five Account Abstraction Wallets. Our selection criteria focus on security features, ease of use, integration capabilities, and the innovative use of smart contracts to provide a seamless user experience. Whether you are a blockchain enthusiast, a developer, or someone curious about the future of digital wallets, this guide will provide valuable insights into the cutting-edge of wallet technology.

Join us as we explore these top-tier Account Abstraction Wallets, each offering unique features that set them apart in the blockchain ecosystem.

1. Argent - TOP 5 Account Abstraction Wallets

Argent stands out as a trailblazer in the domain of smart contract wallets, particularly appealing to those new to the cryptocurrency scene. This France-based company has been at the forefront of account abstraction initiatives since 2017-2018, working alongside other pioneers like Safe and Ambire. Its focus on Layer 2 solutions places it at the cutting edge of blockchain technology.

Source: Argent

Key Features

  • User-Friendly Interface for Newcomers. Argent is designed to be approachable and easy to use, making it an ideal choice for individuals who are just beginning their journey into the world of cryptocurrency.
  • Layer 2 Specialization. With its deployment on the Ethereum Mainnet and Layer 2 platforms such as zkSync and StarkNet, Argent is well-positioned to handle high-speed and cost-efficient transactions, which is integral for the future of Web3 operations.
  • Advanced Smart Account Capabilities:
    • Social Recovery System. A unique feature that allows users to recover their accounts through trusted contacts, enhancing security without compromising convenience.
    • Multi-Signature Support. Offers added security for transactions, requiring multiple approvals for added peace of mind.
    • Fee Payments in Stablecoins. Users can pay transaction fees in stablecoins, ensuring stability and predictability in transaction costs.
    • High-Speed Batch Transactions. Argent supports multicall or batch transactions, allowing users to execute multiple operations swiftly and efficiently.

Design and Accessibility

  • Aesthetically Pleasing and Secure Self-Custody. The wallet's design is not only visually appealing but also emphasizes user-friendly self-custody, ensuring users have full control over their assets.
  • Mobile-First Approach. Available on both iOS and Android, Argent prioritizes mobile users, providing a seamless experience for managing digital assets on the go.
  • Argent X for Browser Users. For those preferring browser wallets, Argent X offers a robust solution for navigating and operating on the StarkNet platform.

2. Avocado - TOP 5 Account Abstraction Wallets

Avocado, created by Instadapp, is a smart contract wallet that revolutionizes the way users interact with multiple blockchain networks. Launched in March 2023, Avocado is a relatively new entrant in the field, but it's quickly gaining attention for its innovative approach to decentralized finance (DeFi) transactions.

Source: InstaApp

Key Features

  • Multi-Network Transactions on a Single Network. Avocado uniquely allows users to perform transactions across multiple networks while remaining connected to just one, removing the hassle of switching between different blockchains.
  • Deterministic Smart Contract. Each wallet is algorithmically linked to the user's address, offering a non-custodial and secure way to manage assets. This deterministic approach ensures consistency and security in transactions.
  • Network Abstraction. Displays all balances from various networks in a single, unified interface, providing a holistic view of a user's assets.
  • Gas Abstraction with USDC. Simplifies the payment of transaction fees by using USDC as the native gas token, ensuring predictability and stability in transaction costs.
  • Account Abstraction for Enhanced Functionality. Avocado supports modularity in design, which is beneficial for various use cases, including assigning authority roles, implementing recovery mechanisms, and bolstering security.

Unique Selling Points

  • Consistent Address Across Chains. With Avocado, users maintain the same address on all chains, significantly reducing the complexity and potential errors associated with managing multiple addresses.
  • Integration with Instadapp's DeFi Platform. As a product of Instadapp, a platform that connects protocols and decentralized applications (dApps) on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), Avocado seamlessly integrates with various DeFi protocols, functioning like a blockchain aggregator.

Limitations and Future Potential

  • Current Limitation on Transaction Fees. As of now, transaction fees on Avocado are exclusively paid in USDC, which may limit some use cases. However, the underlying technology holds the potential for future expansions and more diverse options.


  • Decentralized Web Application. Available as a dApp, Avocado can be accessed both on desktop and mobile, catering to a wide range of users.

3. Ambire Wallet - TOP 5 Account Abstraction Wallets

Ambire Wallet, launched in late 2021, has quickly established itself as a formidable player in the realm of account abstraction wallets. Originating as a pivot from the AdEx Network, a blockchain advertising solution, this Estonia-based company combines a user-centric approach with sophisticated technology.

Source: Ambire

Key Features

  • Advanced Functionalities from the Start. Ambire Wallet was designed to include features like batch transactions, multi-signature capabilities, and the option to pay fees in stablecoins across various blockchain networks.
  • User-Friendly Interface with High-Security Levels. The wallet is tailored to be accessible for newcomers while offering the complexity and security that seasoned crypto enthusiasts demand.
  • Innovative Gas Fee-Saving Mechanisms. Ambire introduced the Gas Tank feature, which allows users to save on transaction fees and choose their preferred token for payment.

Unique Selling Points

  • First to Offer Email & Password Sign-Up. Ambire Wallet was the first self-custodial wallet to implement an email and password sign-up process, effectively blending Web3 technology with Web2 user experience best practices.
  • A Versatile Tool for All Users. The wallet's design is intuitive and informative, making it suitable for both crypto beginners and experienced traders, or 'whales'.
  • Advanced DeFi Features. Ambire Wallet includes an in-built bridge, functionalities to earn and swap, as well as a comprehensive dApp Catalog, catering to diverse needs within the DeFi ecosystem.

Compatibility and Future Plans

  • Support for Multiple EVM Chains: The wallet currently supports over 10 Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) chains, both Layer 1 and Layer 2, with plans to expand further.

4. Sequence - TOP 5 Account Abstraction Wallets

Sequence Wallet, launched by Horizon in late 2022, has rapidly carved a niche for itself in the Account Abstraction Wallet landscape. Initially envisioned as a FinOps solution for business-to-business (B2B) applications, Sequence has expanded its horizons to appeal to a broader consumer base.

Source: Sequence

Evolution and Key Features

  • From B2B FinOps to Broad Consumer Appeal. While it began with a focus on B2B financial operations, Sequence has adeptly incorporated a range of best practices and innovations in account abstraction, making it a versatile tool for individual consumers.
  • Seamless Web3 Experience. Echoing the goals of wallets like Ambire, Sequence is dedicated to providing an intuitive and seamless Web3 experience, backed by a sophisticated tech stack functioning across multiple blockchain networks.

Gaming-Oriented Features

  • Gaming DNA of Horizon. The wallet’s development under Horizon, known for its gaming background, is evident in the features tailored for the Web3 gaming community.
  • Ideal for Gamers. Sequence excels as a gamer-friendly wallet, offering capabilities such as swift fund transfers between games, support for game-specific tokens, and an integrated chat system, enhancing the gaming experience in the Web3 space.

Accessibility and User Interface

  • Web Application for Desktop and Mobile. Sequence is accessible as a web app, ensuring users can manage their digital assets and engage with Web3 applications conveniently on both desktop and mobile devices.

5. Safe - TOP 5 Account Abstraction Wallets

Safe, originally known as Gnosis Safe before gaining independence and rebranding in 2022, is one of the oldest and most trusted smart contract wallets in the Ethereum ecosystem. With roots in the German tech sector, Safe has established itself as a leader in secure asset management and ownership standards.

Source: Safe

Key Features and Evolution

  • Focus on Security and Superior Ownership Standards. Safe's primary objective has always been to fortify the custody protocol, ensuring the highest levels of security for its users.
  • Prominence in Collaborative Asset Management. The wallet is especially favored by Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) and collaborative platforms, owing to its robust solutions for collective asset management.
  • Advanced Account Abstraction Features:
    • Multi-Signature Options: Offers enhanced security measures for asset management.
    • Transaction Simulations: Allows users to preview the outcomes of their transactions before finalizing them.
    • Internal App Store: Provides a platform for users to explore and interact with various Web3 applications.

Unique Selling Points

  • Largest Share of On-Chain Funds. As of the end of 2022, Safe held the largest share of on-chain funds in the crypto wallet space, a testament to its reliability and popularity.
  • Support for Multiple EVM Chains. Safe is compatible with more than 12 Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) chains, ensuring broad usability across the blockchain ecosystem.

User Experience

  • Complex Interface for Advanced Users: Unlike other wallets, Safe does not prioritize streamlining user experiences or simplifying onboarding. Its interface, while comprehensive, may be challenging for newcomers to the crypto world.


  • Mobile and Web Applications: Safe is accessible as both a mobile app for Android and iOS users and as a web application, catering to a diverse range of users.


In the dynamic world of blockchain technology, Account Abstraction Wallets like Argent, Avocado, Ambire, Sequence, and Safe are at the forefront, each offering distinct features to cater to various user needs. From enhancing user experience for newcomers to prioritizing security for advanced users, these wallets are integral in driving the adoption and evolution of cryptocurrency management. As the blockchain landscape continues to evolve, these innovative wallets are paving the way towards a more accessible and secure digital future.

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Applying Game Theory in Token Design

Kajetan Olas

16 Apr 2024
Applying Game Theory in Token Design

Blockchain technology allows for aligning incentives among network participants by rewarding desired behaviors with tokens.
But there is more to it than simply fostering cooperation. Game theory allows for designing incentive-machines that can't be turned-off and resemble artificial life.

Emergent Optimization

Game theory provides a robust framework for analyzing strategic interactions with mathematical models, which is particularly useful in blockchain environments where multiple stakeholders interact within a set of predefined rules. By applying this framework to token systems, developers can design systems that influence the emergent behaviors of network participants. This ensures the stability and effectiveness of the ecosystem.

Bonding Curves

Bonding curves are tool used in token design to manage the relationship between price and token supply predictably. Essentially, a bonding curve is a mathematical curve that defines the price of a token based on its supply. The more tokens that are bought, the higher the price climbs, and vice versa. This model incentivizes early adoption and can help stabilize a token’s economy over time.

For example, a bonding curve could be designed to slow down price increases after certain milestones are reached, thus preventing speculative bubbles and encouraging steadier, more organic growth.

The Case of Bitcoin

Bitcoin’s design incorporates game theory, most notably through its consensus mechanism of proof-of-work (PoW). Its reward function optimizes for security (hashrate) by optimizing for maximum electricity usage. Therefore, optimizing for its legitimate goal of being secure also inadvertently optimizes for corrupting natural environment. Another emergent outcome of PoW is the creation of mining pools, that increase centralization.

The Paperclip Maximizer and the dangers of blockchain economy

What’s the connection between AI from the story and decentralized economies? Blockchain-based incentive systems also can’t be turned off. This means that if we design an incentive system that optimizes towards a wrong objective, we might be unable to change it. Bitcoin critics argue that the PoW consensus mechanism optimizes toward destroying planet Earth.

Layer 2 Solutions

Layer 2 solutions are built on the understanding that the security provided by this core kernel of certainty can be used as an anchor. This anchor then supports additional economic mechanisms that operate off the blockchain, extending the utility of public blockchains like Ethereum. These mechanisms include state channels, sidechains, or plasma, each offering a way to conduct transactions off-chain while still being able to refer back to the anchored security of the main chain if necessary.

Conceptual Example of State Channels

State channels allow participants to perform numerous transactions off-chain, with the blockchain serving as a backstop in case of disputes or malfeasance.

Consider two players, Alice and Bob, who want to play a game of tic-tac-toe with stakes in Ethereum. The naive approach would be to interact directly with a smart contract for every move, which would be slow and costly. Instead, they can use a state channel for their game.

  1. Opening the Channel: They start by deploying a "Judge" smart contract on Ethereum, which holds the 1 ETH wager. The contract knows the rules of the game and the identities of the players.
  2. Playing the Game: Alice and Bob play the game off-chain by signing each move as transactions, which are exchanged directly between them but not broadcast to the blockchain. Each transaction includes a nonce to ensure moves are kept in order.
  3. Closing the Channel: When the game ends, the final state (i.e., the sequence of moves) is sent to the Judge contract, which pays out the wager to the winner after confirming both parties agree on the outcome.

A threat stronger than the execution

If Bob tries to cheat by submitting an old state where he was winning, Alice can challenge this during a dispute period by submitting a newer signed state. The Judge contract can verify the authenticity and order of these states due to the nonces, ensuring the integrity of the game. Thus, the mere threat of execution (submitting the state to the blockchain and having the fraud exposed) secures the off-chain interactions.

Game Theory in Practice

Understanding the application of game theory within blockchain and token ecosystems requires a structured approach to analyzing how stakeholders interact, defining possible actions they can take, and understanding the causal relationships within the system. This structured analysis helps in creating effective strategies that ensure the system operates as intended.

Stakeholder Analysis

Identifying Stakeholders

The first step in applying game theory effectively is identifying all relevant stakeholders within the ecosystem. This includes direct participants such as users, miners, and developers but also external entities like regulators, potential attackers, and partner organizations. Understanding who the stakeholders are and what their interests and capabilities are is crucial for predicting how they might interact within the system.

Stakeholders in blockchain development for systems engineering

Assessing Incentives and Capabilities

Each stakeholder has different motivations and resources at their disposal. For instance, miners are motivated by block rewards and transaction fees, while users seek fast, secure, and cheap transactions. Clearly defining these incentives helps in predicting how changes to the system’s rules and parameters might influence their behaviors.

Defining Action Space

Possible Actions

The action space encompasses all possible decisions or strategies stakeholders can employ in response to the ecosystem's dynamics. For example, a miner might choose to increase computational power, a user might decide to hold or sell tokens, and a developer might propose changes to the protocol.

Artonomus, Github

Constraints and Opportunities

Understanding the constraints (such as economic costs, technological limitations, and regulatory frameworks) and opportunities (such as new technological advancements or changes in market demand) within which these actions take place is vital. This helps in modeling potential strategies stakeholders might adopt.

Artonomus, Github

Causal Relationships Diagram

Mapping Interactions

Creating a diagram that represents the causal relationships between different actions and outcomes within the ecosystem can illuminate how complex interactions unfold. This diagram helps in identifying which variables influence others and how they do so, making it easier to predict the outcomes of certain actions.

Artonomus, Github

Analyzing Impact

By examining the causal relationships, developers and system designers can identify critical leverage points where small changes could have significant impacts. This analysis is crucial for enhancing system stability and ensuring its efficiency.

Feedback Loops

Understanding feedback loops within a blockchain ecosystem is critical as they can significantly amplify or mitigate the effects of changes within the system. These loops can reinforce or counteract trends, leading to rapid growth or decline.

Reinforcing Loops

Reinforcing loops are feedback mechanisms that amplify the effects of a trend or action. For example, increased adoption of a blockchain platform can lead to more developers creating applications on it, which in turn leads to further adoption. This positive feedback loop can drive rapid growth and success.

Death Spiral

Conversely, a death spiral is a type of reinforcing loop that leads to negative outcomes. An example might be the increasing cost of transaction fees leading to decreased usage of the blockchain, which reduces the incentive for miners to secure the network, further decreasing system performance and user adoption. Identifying potential death spirals early is crucial for maintaining the ecosystem's health.

The Death Spiral: How Terra's Algorithmic Stablecoin Came Crashing Down
the-death-spiral-how-terras-algorithmic-stablecoin-came-crashing-down/, Forbes


The fundamental advantage of token-based systems is being able to reward desired behavior. To capitalize on that possibility, token engineers put careful attention into optimization and designing incentives for long-term growth.


  1. What does game theory contribute to blockchain token design?
    • Game theory optimizes blockchain ecosystems by structuring incentives that reward desired behavior.
  2. How do bonding curves apply game theory to improve token economics?
    • Bonding curves set token pricing that adjusts with supply changes, strategically incentivizing early purchases and penalizing speculation.
  3. What benefits do Layer 2 solutions provide in the context of game theory?
    • Layer 2 solutions leverage game theory, by creating systems where the threat of reporting fraudulent behavior ensures honest participation.

Token Engineering Process

Kajetan Olas

13 Apr 2024
Token Engineering Process

Token Engineering is an emerging field that addresses the systematic design and engineering of blockchain-based tokens. It applies rigorous mathematical methods from the Complex Systems Engineering discipline to tokenomics design.

In this article, we will walk through the Token Engineering Process and break it down into three key stages. Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase.

Discovery Phase of Token Engineering Process

The first stage of the token engineering process is the Discovery Phase. It focuses on constructing high-level business plans, defining objectives, and identifying problems to be solved. That phase is also the time when token engineers first define key stakeholders in the project.

Defining the Problem

This may seem counterintuitive. Why would we start with the problem when designing tokenomics? Shouldn’t we start with more down-to-earth matters like token supply? The answer is No. Tokens are a medium for creating and exchanging value within a project’s ecosystem. Since crypto projects draw their value from solving problems that can’t be solved through TradFi mechanisms, their tokenomics should reflect that. 

The industry standard, developed by McKinsey & Co. and adapted to token engineering purposes by Outlier Ventures, is structuring the problem through a logic tree, following MECE.
MECE stands for Mutually Exclusive, Collectively Exhaustive. Mutually Exclusive means that problems in the tree should not overlap. Collectively Exhaustive means that the tree should cover all issues.

In practice, the “Problem” should be replaced by a whole problem statement worksheet. The same will hold for some of the boxes.
A commonly used tool for designing these kinds of diagrams is the Miro whiteboard.

Identifying Stakeholders and Value Flows in Token Engineering

This part is about identifying all relevant actors in the ecosystem and how value flows between them. To illustrate what we mean let’s consider an example of NFT marketplace. In its case, relevant actors might be sellers, buyers, NFT creators, and a marketplace owner. Possible value flow when conducting a transaction might be: buyer gets rid of his tokens, seller gets some of them, marketplace owner gets some of them as fees, and NFT creators get some of them as royalties.

Incentive Mechanisms Canvas

The last part of what we consider to be in the Discovery Phase is filling the Incentive Mechanisms Canvas. After successfully identifying value flows in the previous stage, token engineers search for frictions to desired behaviors and point out the undesired behaviors. For example, friction to activity on an NFT marketplace might be respecting royalty fees by marketplace owners since it reduces value flowing to the seller.


Design Phase of Token Engineering Process

The second stage of the Token Engineering Process is the Design Phase in which you make use of high-level descriptions from the previous step to come up with a specific design of the project. This will include everything that can be usually found in crypto whitepapers (e.g. governance mechanisms, incentive mechanisms, token supply, etc). After finishing the design, token engineers should represent the whole value flow and transactional logic on detailed visual diagrams. These diagrams will be a basis for creating mathematical models in the Deployment Phase. 

Token Engineering Artonomous Design Diagram
Artonomous design diagram, source: Artonomous GitHub

Objective Function

Every crypto project has some objective. The objective can consist of many goals, such as decentralization or token price. The objective function is a mathematical function assigning weights to different factors that influence the main objective in the order of their importance. This function will be a reference for machine learning algorithms in the next steps. They will try to find quantitative parameters (e.g. network fees) that maximize the output of this function.
Modified Metcalfe’s Law can serve as an inspiration during that step. It’s a framework for valuing crypto projects, but we believe that after adjustments it can also be used in this context.

Deployment Phase of Token Engineering Process

The Deployment Phase is final, but also the most demanding step in the process. It involves the implementation of machine learning algorithms that test our assumptions and optimize quantitative parameters. Token Engineering draws from Nassim Taleb’s concept of Antifragility and extensively uses feedback loops to make a system that gains from arising shocks.

Agent-based Modelling 

In agent-based modeling, we describe a set of behaviors and goals displayed by each agent participating in the system (this is why previous steps focused so much on describing stakeholders). Each agent is controlled by an autonomous AI and continuously optimizes his strategy. He learns from his experience and can mimic the behavior of other agents if he finds it effective (Reinforced Learning). This approach allows for mimicking real users, who adapt their strategies with time. An example adaptive agent would be a cryptocurrency trader, who changes his trading strategy in response to experiencing a loss of money.

Monte Carlo Simulations

Token Engineers use the Monte Carlo method to simulate the consequences of various possible interactions while taking into account the probability of their occurrence. By running a large number of simulations it’s possible to stress-test the project in multiple scenarios and identify emergent risks.

Testnet Deployment

If possible, it's highly beneficial for projects to extend the testing phase even further by letting real users use the network. Idea is the same as in agent-based testing - continuous optimization based on provided metrics. Furthermore, in case the project considers airdropping its tokens, giving them to early users is a great strategy. Even though part of the activity will be disingenuine and airdrop-oriented, such strategy still works better than most.

Time Duration

Token engineering process may take from as little as 2 weeks to as much as 5 months. It depends on the project category (Layer 1 protocol will require more time, than a simple DApp), and security requirements. For example, a bank issuing its digital token will have a very low risk tolerance.

Required Skills for Token Engineering

Token engineering is a multidisciplinary field and requires a great amount of specialized knowledge. Key knowledge areas are:

  • Systems Engineering
  • Machine Learning
  • Market Research
  • Capital Markets
  • Current trends in Web3
  • Blockchain Engineering
  • Statistics


The token engineering process consists of 3 steps: Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase. It’s utilized mostly by established blockchain projects, and financial institutions like the International Monetary Fund. Even though it’s a very resource-consuming process, we believe it’s worth it. Projects that went through scrupulous design and testing before launch are much more likely to receive VC funding and be in the 10% of crypto projects that survive the bear market. Going through that process also has a symbolic meaning - it shows that the project is long-term oriented.

If you're looking to create a robust tokenomics model and go through institutional-grade testing please reach out to Our team is ready to help you with the token engineering process and ensure your project’s resilience in the long term.


What does token engineering process look like?

  • Token engineering process is conducted in a 3-step methodical fashion. This includes Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase. Each of these stages should be tailored to the specific needs of a project.

Is token engineering meant only for big projects?

  • We recommend that even small projects go through a simplified design and optimization process. This increases community's trust and makes sure that the tokenomics doesn't have any obvious flaws.

How long does the token engineering process take?

  • It depends on the project and may range from 2 weeks to 5 months.