Immutable X alternatives – the best blockchain for your game

Maciej Zieliński

17 Jan 2022
Immutable X alternatives – the best blockchain for your game

Recently, launching an NTF game has become a lucrative investment option. Therefore more and more entrepreneurs seek to find reliable tools that will enable them to launch their own title. Currently, the one created by Immutable and StarkWare seems to be particularly popular. But what are the Immutable X alternatives? 

Table of Contents 

  • Polygon 
  • Immutable X
  • Solana NFT 
  • Scaling solutions for NFT
  • Gas fees 


Immutable X alternatives: Polygon
Immutable X alternatives: Polygon

Polygon, formerly known as the Matic network, is a secure and scalable solution, that uses side-chains of the blockchain to provide faster and cheaper transactions on Ethereum. In many ways, it resembles other Layer 2 projects such as Avalanche and Cosmos, but according to its creators, it is much more efficient and secure. The practice seems to confirm this. 

Ethereum compatible blockchain networks 

Ethereum is the most widely used blockchain protocol, but it has a number of limitations, including:

  • High transaction costs 
  • Low throughput 
  • Problematic UX  

They are a challenge for blockchain products, including NFTs’ ones, especially because they highly decrease scalability. High gas fees and low fees are particularly detrimental for projects where multiple NFTs are regularly minted and traded, as is in the case of NFT games. 

Therefore, many projects are now exploring the use of Ethereum-compatible blockchain networks as a way to mitigate these limitations while leveraging the benefits of the entire ecosystem. Such networks are called Layer 2 solutions. (You can read more about Layer 2 solutions here). Polygon is definitely one of the most promising. 

As a Layer 2 solution, Polygon addresses the diverse needs of developers by providing tools to create scalable dApps that prioritize security, modularity, and UX. This is made possible through a protocol architecture consisting of Proof of Stake (PoS) Commit Chains and More Viable Plasma (MoreVP).

In a nutshell, the operation of the Matic network relies on Commit Chains, which are transaction networks that run on the main blockchain, Ethereum. Commit Chains to combine transactions into batches, which are then confirmed in bulk before returning the data to Ethereum.  

Zero gas fees 

First thing first: On the Polygon network one can mint, buy, and transfer ownership of NFT for free. Yes, that’s right. Quite a great advantage compared to Layer 1 of Ethereum where minting one NFT can cost even more than $100. 

This is particularly important for NFT games, where multiple NFTs are minted and traded. Polygon network can support it at a low cost, without compromising the security or traceability that Ethereum main network provides. 

Furthermore, Polygon’s NFTs can be easily traded ETH tokens. This will be very convenient for your players, as ETH is one of the most popular, and stable cryptocurrencies, which is present on almost every exchange ( both CEXs and DEXs). 

Immutable X alternatives: Solana
Immutable X alternatives: Solana


Contrary to the other protocols mentioned in this article, Solana isn’t a Layer 2 solution based on Ethereum. It's a completely different blockchain. 

Launched in 2020 by the Solana foundation, Solana Blockchain aims to solve scaling problems that struggle with most of the contemporary blockchain protocols. Its main objective is to support Defi ecosystem growth by fitting in the so-called blockchain trilemma: decentralization, security, and scalability.

Combining those three factors seems to be the holy grail of the blockchain world. Many projects succeed in supporting one or even two of the factors, but fail when it comes to others. Solana engineers believe that they have implemented all three.

Solana is a third-generation blockchain that, unlike other blockchains, uses a hybrid consensus algorithm. To be more precise, it combines proof-of-history (PoH) with proof-of-stake (PoS). Due to that, it’s able to process over 50,000 transactions per second.

For comparison, Ehereum can’t handle more than 30 at the same time. Now you know why expectations toward Solana are so high.

Another significant problem with Ethereum’s Layer 1 is the gas fee. Gas fees are a pivotal issue for NFT games because minting and trading NFTs on-chain require paying them. Essentially it would be almost impossible to build NFT games only on Layer 1 because running it would be too expensive both for players and creators. And even if it were possible, the circle of potential players would be extremely narrow. Here, again we go back to problems with scalability.

This is why NFT games’ creators seek to find other protocols that will offer lower fees. As we mention, Solana is definitely one of them. It offers almost zero gas fees. What does it mean? Ethereum gas fee can easily go over $100 when on Solana average cost per transaction is only … $0.00025. Without a doubt, that’s a significant difference.  

Minting NFTs on Solana 

Ok, so we have a fast, very promising blockchain with quickly increasing popularity. Why shouldn’t we use it for NFT minting? Many of the recently emerged NFT projects prove that it might be a tremendous idea. 

Thanks to its speed and low fees, Solana is a perfect solution for every NFT project that involves minting and trading a lot of them. Of course, that includes NFT games. But that’s not everything. Using Solana blockchain it would be even possible to perform most of the game’s mechanics on-chain. 

Immutable X alternatives
Immutable X alternatives

Immutable X

Talking about alternatives for Immutable X, we couldn’t forget about … Immutable X . There are good reasons why it’s considered a milestone for playable NFTs. 

Released in April 2021 Immutable X is the first Layer 2 solution dedicated to playable NFT tokens. Even behind its creation stand game’s developers - Australian team Immutable, responsible for the NFT-based card game - Gods Unchained. They aimed to allow for mass adoption of NFT in games

As one of the multiple blockchain systems, Immutable X was built on top of the scaling Layer 2 technology created by StarWare. Thus, the platform became the first Layer 2 solution dedicated to NFT. This allows users to take advantage of the security provided by Ethereum without having to pay gas.

An alternative to using the Ethereum ecosystem could be to create an entirely new, faster blockchain protocol with a different method of obtaining consensus or to develop side chains that process transactions in their own way. However, according to the creators of Immutable X, such solutions would be insufficient, as they would most likely not reach the level of security that Ethereum guarantees. 

It is security that seems to play a key role here: "If security fails, the same thing happens to the authenticity of NFT, and that would have nightmarish consequences." say the platform's developers.

Optimized NFT  creation

One of the biggest advantages of the platform is the Immutable X Mint tool, which allows you to easily and securely create and distribute ERC-721 and ERC-20 tokens. Its biggest advantages are:

- Zero gas fees

- Immediate ability to trade newly created assets

- Same security as the main Ethereum network. 

Launching your own NFT game is a complicated process. Therefore, any help may be useful. Luckily, Immutable X creators are one of the most cooperative in the whole industry.

If you want to launch your own NFT game you can seriously count on them. They will guide you through their solution, provide development consultations, and in some cases even help with marketing campaigns and scaling. 

Completely carbon neutral 

According to its creator, Immutable X aims to become the first completely carbon neutral NFT focused project in the game. 

Immutable X as a Layer 2 solution is far more energy-efficient than Ethereum. Therefore creating NFT on it entails lower carbon emission. Yet, that's not everything. The platform claims that it will buy carbon credits to offset the energy footprint of any NFT on it. They will continue that practice until Ethereums’s Layer 1 will become fully proof-of-stake. 

NFT game development with Nextrope 

Choosing the right technology solutions can be the first step for the tremendous success of your project. However, you should be aware, that launching an NFT game that will attract a global audience will require great skills and knowledge regarding both the technical and business sides of the Blockchain industry. That’s why many projects decide to hire an external blockchain company as a technological partner.

At Nextrope, we can call ourselves pioneers of Blockchain technology in CEE. We conducted one of the first tokenization in the world and since that we keep up to date with the industry. NFT games aren’t an exception. 

Do you want to know how Nextrope’s team can boost your NFT game on a new level? Feel free to contact our specialists who will gladly answer all your questions.

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Token Engineering Process

Kajetan Olas

13 Apr 2024
Token Engineering Process

Token Engineering is an emerging field that addresses the systematic design and engineering of blockchain-based tokens. It applies rigorous mathematical methods from the Complex Systems Engineering discipline to tokenomics design.

In this article, we will walk through the Token Engineering Process and break it down into three key stages. Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase.

Discovery Phase of Token Engineering Process

The first stage of the token engineering process is the Discovery Phase. It focuses on constructing high-level business plans, defining objectives, and identifying problems to be solved. That phase is also the time when token engineers first define key stakeholders in the project.

Defining the Problem

This may seem counterintuitive. Why would we start with the problem when designing tokenomics? Shouldn’t we start with more down-to-earth matters like token supply? The answer is No. Tokens are a medium for creating and exchanging value within a project’s ecosystem. Since crypto projects draw their value from solving problems that can’t be solved through TradFi mechanisms, their tokenomics should reflect that. 

The industry standard, developed by McKinsey & Co. and adapted to token engineering purposes by Outlier Ventures, is structuring the problem through a logic tree, following MECE.
MECE stands for Mutually Exclusive, Collectively Exhaustive. Mutually Exclusive means that problems in the tree should not overlap. Collectively Exhaustive means that the tree should cover all issues.

In practice, the “Problem” should be replaced by a whole problem statement worksheet. The same will hold for some of the boxes.
A commonly used tool for designing these kinds of diagrams is the Miro whiteboard.

Identifying Stakeholders and Value Flows in Token Engineering

This part is about identifying all relevant actors in the ecosystem and how value flows between them. To illustrate what we mean let’s consider an example of NFT marketplace. In its case, relevant actors might be sellers, buyers, NFT creators, and a marketplace owner. Possible value flow when conducting a transaction might be: buyer gets rid of his tokens, seller gets some of them, marketplace owner gets some of them as fees, and NFT creators get some of them as royalties.

Incentive Mechanisms Canvas

The last part of what we consider to be in the Discovery Phase is filling the Incentive Mechanisms Canvas. After successfully identifying value flows in the previous stage, token engineers search for frictions to desired behaviors and point out the undesired behaviors. For example, friction to activity on an NFT marketplace might be respecting royalty fees by marketplace owners since it reduces value flowing to the seller.


Design Phase of Token Engineering Process

The second stage of the Token Engineering Process is the Design Phase in which you make use of high-level descriptions from the previous step to come up with a specific design of the project. This will include everything that can be usually found in crypto whitepapers (e.g. governance mechanisms, incentive mechanisms, token supply, etc). After finishing the design, token engineers should represent the whole value flow and transactional logic on detailed visual diagrams. These diagrams will be a basis for creating mathematical models in the Deployment Phase. 

Token Engineering Artonomous Design Diagram
Artonomous design diagram, source: Artonomous GitHub

Objective Function

Every crypto project has some objective. The objective can consist of many goals, such as decentralization or token price. The objective function is a mathematical function assigning weights to different factors that influence the main objective in the order of their importance. This function will be a reference for machine learning algorithms in the next steps. They will try to find quantitative parameters (e.g. network fees) that maximize the output of this function.
Modified Metcalfe’s Law can serve as an inspiration during that step. It’s a framework for valuing crypto projects, but we believe that after adjustments it can also be used in this context.

Deployment Phase of Token Engineering Process

The Deployment Phase is final, but also the most demanding step in the process. It involves the implementation of machine learning algorithms that test our assumptions and optimize quantitative parameters. Token Engineering draws from Nassim Taleb’s concept of Antifragility and extensively uses feedback loops to make a system that gains from arising shocks.

Agent-based Modelling 

In agent-based modeling, we describe a set of behaviors and goals displayed by each agent participating in the system (this is why previous steps focused so much on describing stakeholders). Each agent is controlled by an autonomous AI and continuously optimizes his strategy. He learns from his experience and can mimic the behavior of other agents if he finds it effective (Reinforced Learning). This approach allows for mimicking real users, who adapt their strategies with time. An example adaptive agent would be a cryptocurrency trader, who changes his trading strategy in response to experiencing a loss of money.

Monte Carlo Simulations

Token Engineers use the Monte Carlo method to simulate the consequences of various possible interactions while taking into account the probability of their occurrence. By running a large number of simulations it’s possible to stress-test the project in multiple scenarios and identify emergent risks.

Testnet Deployment

If possible, it's highly beneficial for projects to extend the testing phase even further by letting real users use the network. Idea is the same as in agent-based testing - continuous optimization based on provided metrics. Furthermore, in case the project considers airdropping its tokens, giving them to early users is a great strategy. Even though part of the activity will be disingenuine and airdrop-oriented, such strategy still works better than most.

Time Duration

Token engineering process may take from as little as 2 weeks to as much as 5 months. It depends on the project category (Layer 1 protocol will require more time, than a simple DApp), and security requirements. For example, a bank issuing its digital token will have a very low risk tolerance.

Required Skills for Token Engineering

Token engineering is a multidisciplinary field and requires a great amount of specialized knowledge. Key knowledge areas are:

  • Systems Engineering
  • Machine Learning
  • Market Research
  • Capital Markets
  • Current trends in Web3
  • Blockchain Engineering
  • Statistics


The token engineering process consists of 3 steps: Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase. It’s utilized mostly by established blockchain projects, and financial institutions like the International Monetary Fund. Even though it’s a very resource-consuming process, we believe it’s worth it. Projects that went through scrupulous design and testing before launch are much more likely to receive VC funding and be in the 10% of crypto projects that survive the bear market. Going through that process also has a symbolic meaning - it shows that the project is long-term oriented.

If you're looking to create a robust tokenomics model and go through institutional-grade testing please reach out to Our team is ready to help you with the token engineering process and ensure your project’s resilience in the long term.


What does token engineering process look like?

  • Token engineering process is conducted in a 3-step methodical fashion. This includes Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase. Each of these stages should be tailored to the specific needs of a project.

Is token engineering meant only for big projects?

  • We recommend that even small projects go through a simplified design and optimization process. This increases community's trust and makes sure that the tokenomics doesn't have any obvious flaws.

How long does the token engineering process take?

  • It depends on the project and may range from 2 weeks to 5 months.

What is Berachain? 🐻 ⛓️ + Proof-of-Liquidity Explained


18 Mar 2024
What is Berachain? 🐻 ⛓️ + Proof-of-Liquidity Explained

Enter Berachain: a high-performance, EVM-compatible blockchain that is set to redefine the landscape of decentralized applications (dApps) and blockchain services. Built on the innovative Proof-of-Liquidity consensus and leveraging the robust Polaris framework alongside the CometBFT consensus engine, Berachain is poised to offer an unprecedented blend of efficiency, security, and user-centric benefits. Let's dive into what makes it a groundbreaking development in the blockchain ecosystem.

What is Berachain?


Berachain is an EVM-compatible Layer 1 (L1) blockchain that stands out through its adoption of the Proof-of-Liquidity (PoL) consensus mechanism. Designed to address the critical challenges faced by decentralized networks. It introduces a cutting-edge approach to blockchain governance and operations.

Key Features

  • High-performance Capabilities. Berachain is engineered for speed and scalability, catering to the growing demand for efficient blockchain solutions.
  • EVM Compatibility. It supports all Ethereum tooling, operations, and smart contract languages, making it a seamless transition for developers and projects from the Ethereum ecosystem.
  • Proof-of-Liquidity.This novel consensus mechanism focuses on building liquidity, decentralizing stake, and aligning the interests of validators and protocol developers.


EVM-Compatible vs EVM-Equivalent


EVM compatibility means a blockchain can interact with Ethereum's ecosystem to some extent. It can interact supporting its smart contracts and tools but not replicating the entire EVM environment.


An EVM-equivalent blockchain, on the other hand, aims to fully replicate Ethereum's environment. It ensures complete compatibility and a smooth transition for developers and users alike.

Berachain's Position

Berachain can be considered an "EVM-equivalent-plus" blockchain. It supports all Ethereum operations, tooling, and additional functionalities that optimize for its unique Proof-of-Liquidity and abstracted use cases.

Berachain Modular First Approach

At the heart of Berachain's development philosophy is the Polaris EVM framework. It's a testament to the blockchain's commitment to modularity and flexibility. This approach allows for the easy separation of the EVM runtime layer, ensuring that Berachain can adapt and evolve without compromising on performance or security.

Proof Of Liquidity Overview

High-Level Model Objectives

  • Systemically Build Liquidity. By enhancing trading efficiency, price stability, and network growth, Berachain aims to foster a thriving ecosystem of decentralized applications.
  • Solve Stake Centralization. The PoL consensus works to distribute stake more evenly across the network, preventing monopolization and ensuring a decentralized, secure blockchain.
  • Align Protocols and Validators. Berachain encourages a symbiotic relationship between validators and the broader protocol ecosystem.

Proof-of-Liquidity vs Proof-of-Stake

Unlike traditional Proof of Stake (PoS), which often leads to stake centralization and reduced liquidity, Proof of Liquidity (PoL) introduces mechanisms to incentivize liquidity provision and ensure a fairer, more decentralized network. Berachain separates the governance token (BGT) from the chain's gas token (BERA) and incentives liquidity through BEX pools. Berachain's PoL aims to overcome the limitations of PoS, fostering a more secure and user-centric blockchain.

Berachain EVM and Modular Approach

Polaris EVM

Polaris EVM is the cornerstone of Berachain's EVM compatibility, offering developers an enhanced environment for smart contract execution that includes stateful precompiles and custom modules. This framework ensures that Berachain not only meets but exceeds the capabilities of the traditional Ethereum Virtual Machine.


The CometBFT consensus engine underpins Berachain's network, providing a secure and efficient mechanism for transaction verification and block production. By leveraging the principles of Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT), CometBFT ensures the integrity and resilience of the Berachain blockchain.


Berachain represents a significant leap forward in blockchain technology, combining the best of Ethereum's ecosystem with innovative consensus mechanisms and a modular development approach. As the blockchain landscape continues to evolve, Berachain stands out as a promising platform for developers, users, and validators alike, offering a scalable, efficient, and inclusive environment for decentralized applications and services.


For those interested in exploring further, a wealth of resources is available, including the Berachain documentation, GitHub repository, and community forums. It offers a compelling vision for the future of blockchain technology, marked by efficiency, security, and community-driven innovation.


How is Berachain different?

  • It integrates Proof-of-Liquidity to address stake centralization and enhance liquidity, setting it apart from other blockchains.

Is Berachain EVM-compatible?

  • Yes, it supports Ethereum's tooling and smart contract languages, facilitating easy migration of dApps.

Can it handle high transaction volumes?

  • Yes, thanks to the Polaris framework and CometBFT consensus engine, it's built for scalability and high throughput.