DAO Governance models and use cases

Karolina

16 May 2023
DAO Governance models and use cases

DAO governance models is a crucial aspect of DAOs. It outlines decision-making processes, voting mechanisms, funds management, and stakeholder participation. These models have been used to fund, manage and govern DAOs in the cryptocurrency space for several years. This article will discuss the rise of DAOs and examine the various governance models adopted by these innovative organizations.

Excited about joining the DAO? Check out our guide!

Understanding DAO Governance Models

DAO governance models provide a structure for decentralized decision-making and resource allocation within an organization. These models are designed to promote transparency, inclusivity, and community-driven decision-making. Unlike traditional governance structures, where decisions are made by a select group of individuals or entities, DAOs enable broader participation, allowing stakeholders to contribute and influence decisions. Governance models are critical to the success of decentralized organizations. 

DAO Governance Models - Fundamental Concepts

  • Transparency: Promoting easy access to data and involvement in decision-making.
  • Security: Establishing protective measures against harmful attacks or tampering within the DAO.
  • Flexibility: Facilitating change and growth in response to the DAO's and its ecosystem's development.
  • Inclusivity: Fostering wide-ranging community involvement and engagement of stakeholders.

Main DAO Governance Models

Main DAO governance models

There are four main DAO governance models:

  • ConstitutionDAO, 
  • Friends with Benefits DAO, 
  • JuiceboxDAO,
  • Ethereum Name Service DAO. 

ConstitutionDAO

ConstitutionDAO represents a governing framework that allows users to collectively pool their resources and acquire shared asset ownership through cryptocurrencies. This DAO governance arrangement ensures stability for its members by implementing a clear set of rules that dictate the DAO's operations. 

As one of the first DAO governance structures, ConstitutionDAO has demonstrated the potential of decentralized organizations and the power of collective efforts in achieving shared goals.

Friends with Benefits DAO

FWB, or Friends with Benefits DAO, is a community centered around social tokens that aims to assist creators and forge solid connections between its participants. Utilizing dao governance models, FWB promotes a socially-driven approach where members holding vested tokens can partake in the decision-making process. This method highlights teamwork, repute, and the value of social capital, empowering members to jointly influence the community's path and efforts.

JuiceboxDAO

JuiceboxDAO represents a novel form of dao governance models, integrating aspects of both token-based systems and conviction voting. Within this paradigm, holders of tokens possess voting authority in relation to their stake size, while also being able to demonstrate their dedication by securing their tokens for a certain time frame. As tokens are locked for longer periods, the votes gain more influence. This method encourages lasting engagement and fosters harmony between the motives of stakeholders and the accomplishments of the DAO's projects and endeavors.

Ethereum Name Service DAO

The Ethereum Name Service (ENS) Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) offers a fully distributed domain name system built upon the Ethereum blockchain network. Its governance framework integrates a unique "proof of individuality" process, in which participants establish their distinctiveness through an identity authentication procedure. The ENS DAO employs a quadratic voting mechanism that enables token holders to apportion their voting authority across multiple proposals. In doing so, this model fosters equitable treatment and deters the centralization of power by dispersing influence more evenly among participants.

ENS DAO works on a three-layered approach:

  • Discourse of proposals
  • Off-chain voting used by delegates
  • Voting on the blockchain

Use Cases of DAO Governance Models

1. Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) governance models have significantly impacted the field of decentralized finance (DeFi). DeFi platforms often leverage DAOs to manage key protocol decisions, such as setting interest rates, defining collateral requirements, or introducing new features. Applying a DAO governance structure allows DeFi initiatives to involve community members in the decision-making process, thereby fostering a more inclusive and decentralized financial landscape.

2. Collective Investment and Fund Management

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) have become valuable tools for group investment and the management of funds. With the implementation of DAO governance structures, those who hold tokens can collaboratively make investment choices, resulting in a more equitable and transparent approach to investing. These DAOs enable pooling of resources, empowering participants to team up and invest in various projects, oversee funds, and apportion profits according to predetermined rules.

3. Content Creation and Curation

In the digital content space, DAO governance models offer new opportunities for content creation and curation platforms. Utilizing DAOs allows content creators and curators to obtain rewards through community-driven voting systems and decision-making procedures. This guarantees that the most valuable and high-quality content receives recognition and financial incentives, creating a fairer and more decentralized content ecosystem.

4. Decentralized Governance

Perhaps the most fundamental use case is in decentralized governance itself. DAOs can be created to manage the decision-making processes within communities, organizations, or even entire cities. By giving power back to the people, DAOs facilitate direct democratic participation, allowing individuals to have a say in matters that affect them. This enables greater transparency, accountability, and inclusivity in governance processes.

Conclusion

DAOs have revolutionized traditional management structures, enabling decentralized decision-making and value creation. With the ability to apply different models to different sectors, such as DeFi, content platforms and investments, DAOs are able to transform and revolutionize a variety of industries.

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Token Engineering Process

Kajetan Olas

13 Apr 2024
Token Engineering Process

Token Engineering is an emerging field that addresses the systematic design and engineering of blockchain-based tokens. It applies rigorous mathematical methods from the Complex Systems Engineering discipline to tokenomics design.

In this article, we will walk through the Token Engineering Process and break it down into three key stages. Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase.

Discovery Phase of Token Engineering Process

The first stage of the token engineering process is the Discovery Phase. It focuses on constructing high-level business plans, defining objectives, and identifying problems to be solved. That phase is also the time when token engineers first define key stakeholders in the project.

Defining the Problem

This may seem counterintuitive. Why would we start with the problem when designing tokenomics? Shouldn’t we start with more down-to-earth matters like token supply? The answer is No. Tokens are a medium for creating and exchanging value within a project’s ecosystem. Since crypto projects draw their value from solving problems that can’t be solved through TradFi mechanisms, their tokenomics should reflect that. 

The industry standard, developed by McKinsey & Co. and adapted to token engineering purposes by Outlier Ventures, is structuring the problem through a logic tree, following MECE.
MECE stands for Mutually Exclusive, Collectively Exhaustive. Mutually Exclusive means that problems in the tree should not overlap. Collectively Exhaustive means that the tree should cover all issues.

In practice, the “Problem” should be replaced by a whole problem statement worksheet. The same will hold for some of the boxes.
A commonly used tool for designing these kinds of diagrams is the Miro whiteboard.

Identifying Stakeholders and Value Flows in Token Engineering

This part is about identifying all relevant actors in the ecosystem and how value flows between them. To illustrate what we mean let’s consider an example of NFT marketplace. In its case, relevant actors might be sellers, buyers, NFT creators, and a marketplace owner. Possible value flow when conducting a transaction might be: buyer gets rid of his tokens, seller gets some of them, marketplace owner gets some of them as fees, and NFT creators get some of them as royalties.

Incentive Mechanisms Canvas

The last part of what we consider to be in the Discovery Phase is filling the Incentive Mechanisms Canvas. After successfully identifying value flows in the previous stage, token engineers search for frictions to desired behaviors and point out the undesired behaviors. For example, friction to activity on an NFT marketplace might be respecting royalty fees by marketplace owners since it reduces value flowing to the seller.

source: https://www.canva.com/design/DAFDTNKsIJs/8Ky9EoJJI7p98qKLIu2XNw/view#7

Design Phase of Token Engineering Process

The second stage of the Token Engineering Process is the Design Phase in which you make use of high-level descriptions from the previous step to come up with a specific design of the project. This will include everything that can be usually found in crypto whitepapers (e.g. governance mechanisms, incentive mechanisms, token supply, etc). After finishing the design, token engineers should represent the whole value flow and transactional logic on detailed visual diagrams. These diagrams will be a basis for creating mathematical models in the Deployment Phase. 

Token Engineering Artonomous Design Diagram
Artonomous design diagram, source: Artonomous GitHub

Objective Function

Every crypto project has some objective. The objective can consist of many goals, such as decentralization or token price. The objective function is a mathematical function assigning weights to different factors that influence the main objective in the order of their importance. This function will be a reference for machine learning algorithms in the next steps. They will try to find quantitative parameters (e.g. network fees) that maximize the output of this function.
Modified Metcalfe’s Law can serve as an inspiration during that step. It’s a framework for valuing crypto projects, but we believe that after adjustments it can also be used in this context.

Deployment Phase of Token Engineering Process

The Deployment Phase is final, but also the most demanding step in the process. It involves the implementation of machine learning algorithms that test our assumptions and optimize quantitative parameters. Token Engineering draws from Nassim Taleb’s concept of Antifragility and extensively uses feedback loops to make a system that gains from arising shocks.

Agent-based Modelling 

In agent-based modeling, we describe a set of behaviors and goals displayed by each agent participating in the system (this is why previous steps focused so much on describing stakeholders). Each agent is controlled by an autonomous AI and continuously optimizes his strategy. He learns from his experience and can mimic the behavior of other agents if he finds it effective (Reinforced Learning). This approach allows for mimicking real users, who adapt their strategies with time. An example adaptive agent would be a cryptocurrency trader, who changes his trading strategy in response to experiencing a loss of money.

Monte Carlo Simulations

Token Engineers use the Monte Carlo method to simulate the consequences of various possible interactions while taking into account the probability of their occurrence. By running a large number of simulations it’s possible to stress-test the project in multiple scenarios and identify emergent risks.

Testnet Deployment

If possible, it's highly beneficial for projects to extend the testing phase even further by letting real users use the network. Idea is the same as in agent-based testing - continuous optimization based on provided metrics. Furthermore, in case the project considers airdropping its tokens, giving them to early users is a great strategy. Even though part of the activity will be disingenuine and airdrop-oriented, such strategy still works better than most.

Time Duration

Token engineering process may take from as little as 2 weeks to as much as 5 months. It depends on the project category (Layer 1 protocol will require more time, than a simple DApp), and security requirements. For example, a bank issuing its digital token will have a very low risk tolerance.

Required Skills for Token Engineering

Token engineering is a multidisciplinary field and requires a great amount of specialized knowledge. Key knowledge areas are:

  • Systems Engineering
  • Machine Learning
  • Market Research
  • Capital Markets
  • Current trends in Web3
  • Blockchain Engineering
  • Statistics

Summary

The token engineering process consists of 3 steps: Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase. It’s utilized mostly by established blockchain projects, and financial institutions like the International Monetary Fund. Even though it’s a very resource-consuming process, we believe it’s worth it. Projects that went through scrupulous design and testing before launch are much more likely to receive VC funding and be in the 10% of crypto projects that survive the bear market. Going through that process also has a symbolic meaning - it shows that the project is long-term oriented.

If you're looking to create a robust tokenomics model and go through institutional-grade testing please reach out to contact@nextrope.com. Our team is ready to help you with the token engineering process and ensure your project’s resilience in the long term.

FAQ

What does token engineering process look like?

  • Token engineering process is conducted in a 3-step methodical fashion. This includes Discovery Phase, Design Phase, and Deployment Phase. Each of these stages should be tailored to the specific needs of a project.

Is token engineering meant only for big projects?

  • We recommend that even small projects go through a simplified design and optimization process. This increases community's trust and makes sure that the tokenomics doesn't have any obvious flaws.

How long does the token engineering process take?

  • It depends on the project and may range from 2 weeks to 5 months.

What is Berachain? 🐻 ⛓️ + Proof-of-Liquidity Explained

Karolina

18 Mar 2024
What is Berachain? 🐻 ⛓️ + Proof-of-Liquidity Explained

Enter Berachain: a high-performance, EVM-compatible blockchain that is set to redefine the landscape of decentralized applications (dApps) and blockchain services. Built on the innovative Proof-of-Liquidity consensus and leveraging the robust Polaris framework alongside the CometBFT consensus engine, Berachain is poised to offer an unprecedented blend of efficiency, security, and user-centric benefits. Let's dive into what makes it a groundbreaking development in the blockchain ecosystem.

What is Berachain?

Overview

Berachain is an EVM-compatible Layer 1 (L1) blockchain that stands out through its adoption of the Proof-of-Liquidity (PoL) consensus mechanism. Designed to address the critical challenges faced by decentralized networks. It introduces a cutting-edge approach to blockchain governance and operations.

Key Features

  • High-performance Capabilities. Berachain is engineered for speed and scalability, catering to the growing demand for efficient blockchain solutions.
  • EVM Compatibility. It supports all Ethereum tooling, operations, and smart contract languages, making it a seamless transition for developers and projects from the Ethereum ecosystem.
  • Proof-of-Liquidity.This novel consensus mechanism focuses on building liquidity, decentralizing stake, and aligning the interests of validators and protocol developers.

MUST READ: Docs

EVM-Compatible vs EVM-Equivalent

EVM-Compatible

EVM compatibility means a blockchain can interact with Ethereum's ecosystem to some extent. It can interact supporting its smart contracts and tools but not replicating the entire EVM environment.

EVM-Equivalent

An EVM-equivalent blockchain, on the other hand, aims to fully replicate Ethereum's environment. It ensures complete compatibility and a smooth transition for developers and users alike.

Berachain's Position

Berachain can be considered an "EVM-equivalent-plus" blockchain. It supports all Ethereum operations, tooling, and additional functionalities that optimize for its unique Proof-of-Liquidity and abstracted use cases.

Berachain Modular First Approach

At the heart of Berachain's development philosophy is the Polaris EVM framework. It's a testament to the blockchain's commitment to modularity and flexibility. This approach allows for the easy separation of the EVM runtime layer, ensuring that Berachain can adapt and evolve without compromising on performance or security.

Proof Of Liquidity Overview

High-Level Model Objectives

  • Systemically Build Liquidity. By enhancing trading efficiency, price stability, and network growth, Berachain aims to foster a thriving ecosystem of decentralized applications.
  • Solve Stake Centralization. The PoL consensus works to distribute stake more evenly across the network, preventing monopolization and ensuring a decentralized, secure blockchain.
  • Align Protocols and Validators. Berachain encourages a symbiotic relationship between validators and the broader protocol ecosystem.

Proof-of-Liquidity vs Proof-of-Stake

Unlike traditional Proof of Stake (PoS), which often leads to stake centralization and reduced liquidity, Proof of Liquidity (PoL) introduces mechanisms to incentivize liquidity provision and ensure a fairer, more decentralized network. Berachain separates the governance token (BGT) from the chain's gas token (BERA) and incentives liquidity through BEX pools. Berachain's PoL aims to overcome the limitations of PoS, fostering a more secure and user-centric blockchain.

Berachain EVM and Modular Approach

Polaris EVM

Polaris EVM is the cornerstone of Berachain's EVM compatibility, offering developers an enhanced environment for smart contract execution that includes stateful precompiles and custom modules. This framework ensures that Berachain not only meets but exceeds the capabilities of the traditional Ethereum Virtual Machine.

CometBFT

The CometBFT consensus engine underpins Berachain's network, providing a secure and efficient mechanism for transaction verification and block production. By leveraging the principles of Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT), CometBFT ensures the integrity and resilience of the Berachain blockchain.

Conclusion

Berachain represents a significant leap forward in blockchain technology, combining the best of Ethereum's ecosystem with innovative consensus mechanisms and a modular development approach. As the blockchain landscape continues to evolve, Berachain stands out as a promising platform for developers, users, and validators alike, offering a scalable, efficient, and inclusive environment for decentralized applications and services.

Resources

For those interested in exploring further, a wealth of resources is available, including the Berachain documentation, GitHub repository, and community forums. It offers a compelling vision for the future of blockchain technology, marked by efficiency, security, and community-driven innovation.

FAQ

How is Berachain different?

  • It integrates Proof-of-Liquidity to address stake centralization and enhance liquidity, setting it apart from other blockchains.

Is Berachain EVM-compatible?

  • Yes, it supports Ethereum's tooling and smart contract languages, facilitating easy migration of dApps.

Can it handle high transaction volumes?

  • Yes, thanks to the Polaris framework and CometBFT consensus engine, it's built for scalability and high throughput.